Origin of the Surname
The surname Clarke is one of the oldest and most widespread names in Ireland. Its roots go back to ancient times when surnames were first being used in Ireland, around the 10th century. The name has clerical origins, primarily denoting a secretary, clerk, or cleric in religious houses or administrative offices.
Etymology and Meaning
Derived from the Old English ‘clerec,’ and later ‘clerk,’ the name was used in Middle English to denote a literate man, particularly one who could read Latin, a skill typically associated with the clergy. It is an occupational surname, characterizing the work of the original bearer.
Earliest Known Usage
The earliest known use of the surname Clarke dates back to the 12th century in England. However, the surname’s use in Ireland can be traced back to the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion in the late 12th century.
The Clarke family name is widespread throughout Ireland, but it’s particularly prevalent in counties Galway and Antrim. These locations were both notable seats of the Clarke family and are places where the family established significant roots.
Original Geographic Location
In the context of Irish history, the Clarke family originally held a family seat in East Galway, one of the first locations where Normans settled in large numbers.
Starting in the 17th century, many Clarkes migrated to the New World, driven by economic hardship, political turmoil, and the promise of a better life. Significant Clarke populations are found today in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, reflecting this pattern of migration.
Notable Historical Events
The Clarkes, like many Irish families, faced significant challenges during the 16th and 17th centuries, including the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Penal Laws, and the Great Famine of the 1840s.
Involvement in Key Moments in History
Throughout history, the Clarkes have been involved in numerous key moments. Many took part in the Irish rebellion of 1641 and later the Jacobite War.
Notable Bearers of the Surname
Several Clarkes from Ireland have achieved prominence, including Austin Clarke, one of the leading Irish poets of the 20th century, and Samuel Clarke, a notable philosopher.
James Clarke, an Irish-born American, served as the third Governor of Iowa from 1846 until his death in 1850.
Variations of the Surname
Due to the lack of standardized spelling in early historical records, many variations of Clarke exist, including Clerk, Clark, Clerke, and more.
While ‘Clarke’ is commonly used in Ireland and England, ‘Clark’ (without the ‘e’) is more prevalent in Scotland and North America.
Current Statistics and Distribution
Frequency and Global Distribution
Today, there are approximately 900,000 individuals with the surname Clarke worldwide, with the majority residing in the United States, followed by England and Australia.
Changes Over Time
The popularity of the surname Clarke has remained fairly stable over the centuries, particularly in Ireland, where it remains a common surname.
Family Coat of Arms
The Clarke family coat of arms, of Irish origin, features a silver shield with three black priest’s hats, signifying the family’s historical association with the Church.
- Grenham, J., 2013. Tracing Your Irish Ancestors. 4th ed. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
- MacLysaght, E., 1985. The Surnames of Ireland. 6th ed. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.